Laura Nicholson – May 2019
1. Mood boards
These utilise the theory that some information is better when communicated more visually. It is essentially a collage which contains, images, photos, samples and some small amounts of text to demonstrate an idea or concept.
Mood boards further represent an opportunity to apply information in a new way as the gathered images and photos can be symbolical, to reflect emotions, textures or sensations, thus displaying competence in utilising one object to represent another (Gentes et al., 2015). Organisation, coherence and relevance are all essential skills being assessed in this activity.
Enhance with technology
Alternatively, an application such as Padlet, is a free online virtual wall tool, allowing for a mood board to be constructed and continuously updated from anywhere.
Padlet can be used collaboratively to thought-shower ideas for the mood board, enabling others to leave feedback to further help with the development of a concept. Or, Padlet can be used to create the mood board, allowing for the addition of links, videos and GIFs, unlike a traditional mood board. However, due to the virtual nature of this software, any desire to convey meaning through texture and touch could be lost with this tool.
A starting point for this activity is to focus on the language of optimism and pessimism by discussing the definition of each word, related phrases and idioms. Students are tasked with taking opposite sides of a situation or case study; they can do this verbally in pairs, where one student takes the pessimist view, and one adopts the optimistic view.
Alternatively, it can be done individually as a written exercise whereby each student has to consider both the pessimistic and optimistic viewpoint. For either delivery method, students will be required to apply what they know about the situation and modify their response according to the position taken.
Discussion and further examination of the different language used could be an opportunity for additional development and analysis.
Enhance with technology
Following the discussion on general definitions, get students to share their ideas about language use and appropriate phrases. To ensure whole class participation and a collaboration of ideas use a real time class feedback tool such as Popin or Mentimeter. To use Mentimeter, students just need to type in the room number so their ideas can then be shared and displayed real-time on the whiteboard. They can access Mentimeter through either their phones, tablets or laptops.
POPin is also a class feedback tool and has many other uses too; Popin can be used to create live polls, or pose multiple choice questions, scale and yes/no questions. Students can access the questions on any device, and basic registration is free.
3. Case studies
Davis and Wilcock (ND) consider case studies to be ‘student-centred activities, which are based on topics that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting’.
Case studies can come in a variety of formats and complexity, making this type of activity straightforward to differentiate. To develop problem-solving skills, student’s could be asked what they would do in the situation, or they can asses the suitability of the action taken in the case study. To analyse, students can consider the overall issue, context, key facts, alternatives and subsequent justifiable recommendations (Boston University, ND).
The duration of the case study activity can vary from writing a short response, to something more extensive, such as writing a research proposal. Also, the case studies do not have to be stand-alone activities; a case study can be supplemented with video clips to address more complex elements or paired with a reading to add more background information.
Case studies are often completed as a written task, but there are many opportunities to adapt, such as getting students to role-play the people involved (Boston University, ND), to enable more interactive analysis of the concepts involved.
Enhance with technology
Paperity is a useful tool for sourcing case studies. Just type the desired subject content followed by ‘case study to find a range of open access journals and papers. Full pdf articles are available from a range of disciplines
4. Field trips
Field trips provide an experiential learning opportunity for students to learn through doing in a practical hands-on learning environment. A field trip has multiple uses; it can offer an excellent opportunity to remember a topic, lay the foundations for a new topic, or to pull all the elements of a topic together.
According to Nadelson & Jordan (2012), field trips provide a unique experience allowing the transfer of previous knowledge and the acquisition of new knowledge, but to be successful, they should incorporate the following elements.
- Field trips should link to the curriculum and students should be involved in taking an active role in data gathering on the trip. At the same time, a delicate balance is required, whereby enrichment is not clouded by excessive and tedious worksheet completion, as this will destroy an opportunity to engage and spark interest in the excursion.
- Students should be actively involved in how they plan to meet these objectives; get students to draw a mind map of all the elements of the topic to be covered and then they can draw up a list of questions to address these elements. Students decide whether preliminary research is needed to answer the questions and complete if necessary or develop new questions which can only be answered from the excursion.
Active involvement in the planning process at this stage helps to maintain focus and participation during the trip.
Enhance or transform with technology
Google Docs will let students create, edit and share documents and drawings. This tool will be useful during the planning stages to encourage the collaboration of relevant ideas and for designing the questions to be used for the excursion.
Alternatively, create a virtual fieldwork environment using Google Maps, to enable students to explore the areas online before the excursion. Google Street View provides 360° images of a place, so students can literally ‘walk through’ many regions across the world.
GmapGIS is an additional free web-based tool for Google maps enabling users to draw lines, polygons, place markers or add labels onto a map. These can then be saved for later viewing, or sent as a link to others (GmapGIS, ND).
The Geographical Association provide an excellent case study which demonstrates how students have utilised the opportunities created by virtual reality. Suggestions are also provided in relation to data gathering, collaboration and analysis of data. The Geographical Association’s case study is based on a geography field trip, but the concepts could be applied to several different disciplines.
5. Inference and deduction
The inference element of this task refers to the technique of finding answers from clues and using prior knowledge, rather than something being specifically told (BBC council, ND). The deduction element is the conclusion reached because of other things known to be true. Inference and deduction can be used for a variety of tasks; more often text-based, but inferences can also be made from images and photos.
The first stage of this activity should involve the lecturer modelling how to make inferences, or use anchor charts to train students how to identify the different aspects to consider. Research by Kispal (2008) has been summarised below to provide a range of suggestions on how to make inferences from a piece of text.
- Identify information critical to the interpretation of the text.
- Relate the new material to what they already know to construct an interpretation.
- Relate important points (grammar elements, cause and effect) in the text to one another to understand the text as a whole.
- Consider the mental representations.
- Consider why the author mentions or shows X.
- Consider why an action was formed, or why an event occurred.
- Track the emotional responses of any characters throughout the text.
- Elaborate and speculate about ideas regarding the author’s purposes.
(Kispal, 2008, p.44 cited Israel & Massey, 2005; Kispal, 2008, p.15 cited Graesser et al.,2005, pp.371-396).
Additionally, it is recommended that any inference made should be followed by the question ‘how do you know?’ (Richards and Anderson, 2003).
Enhance with technology
The New York Times runs a ‘what’s going on in this picture?’ daily challenge. They publish an image stripped of its caption, and then anyone can post what they think is being depicted in the picture; the daily challenge could be a fun way to start any activity on inferences.
To extend students could also find photos or images, remove any captions, and then get their peers to make inferences.
6. Transcribe and relate
Credit for this activity goes to Martin (2017) and his ‘keep it simple’ activities. The lecturer reads a list of 16 keywords linked to the topic e.g. clavicle, femur, metacarpal, patella etc., but students have to wait 10 seconds before writing down as many of the words they can remember.
The advantage of this 10 second delay is that it forces the words to be mentally repeated over and over again in the short term memory. Smith (2019) argues that this leaves ‘a trace which can eventually find its way into long term memory, especially if the language is reused later on several occasions over time (spaced retrieval)’.
Students then pick 2-3 of these words and go onto Twitter to find phrases using the words. Alternatively, they can go onto Wordnik, which additionally provides a definition, phrases using the word, a Twitter feed of Tweets using the word, antonyms and words with similar meanings. Students select an appropriate Tweet or phrase, makes a card/s with the phrase on, but misses out the remembered word, leaving a …. gap to fill. Students write the answers on the back of the cards, and these are then read out to the class to guess the missing word. The benefit of this activity is that it encourages students to think about how they can use language in different ways.
To extend or adapt: Students could also identify related words and pose these to the class to guess the original word, or they could find an image which they feel represents the missing word (but not too obvious that it gives it away instantly).
BBC Council. (ND). Inference. Available at: https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/inference (last accessed 21/04/2019)
Boston University. (ND). Using case studies to teach. Available at: https://www.bu.edu/ctl/ (last accessed 24/04/2019)
Davis, C., Wilcock, E. (ND). Teaching materials using case studies. Available at: http://www.materials.ac.uk/guides/casestudies.asp (last accessed 24/04/2019)
Gentes, A., Valentin, F., Brulé, E. (2015). Mood boards as a tool for the “in-discipline” of design. IASDR, Nov 2015, Brisbane, Australia. Available at: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01246049/document (last accessed 24/04/2019)
Kispal, A. (2008). Effective teaching of inference skills for reading. Available at: https://www.nfer.ac.uk/publications/EDR01/EDR01.pdf (last accessed 27/04/2019)
Martin, D. (2017). Keep it simple activities: Dictation 2 .Available at: https://kisactivities.com/2017/11/14/dictation-2/ (last accessed 27/04/2019)
Nadelson, L. S., & Jordan, J. R. (2012). Student attitudes toward and recall of outside day: An environmental science field trip. The Journal of Educational Research, 105, 220-231. doi:10.10 80/00220671.2011.576715 (last accessed 28/04/2019)
Richards, J.C. & Anderson, N.A. (2003). How do you know: a strategy to help emergent readers make inferences, The Reading Teacher. 57, 3, p.290-293.
Smith, S. (2019). Delayed Dictation. Available at: https://frenchteachernet.blogspot.com/2019/01/delayed-dictation.html (last accessed 27/04/2019) ‘